Trujillo del Perú was founded by Diego de Almagro in December (maybe late November) 1534, under express orders from Francisco Pizarro and the foundation was formalized in March 1535. It was founded among 4 Chimú settlements (Moche, Huanchaco, Huamán & Mampuesto), so they could ally against the Incas. It was named after Pizarro´s home town, & the original street plan traced by Martín de Estete, following royal ordinances via Panamá, requiring for example a military building (intendencia) on the plaza. It was a religious & military conquest & details like the town hall could wait.
The Plaza de Armas originally had 3 solares on each side, plots which stretched to the next street. Each house typically had a zaguán or entrance hall to a first reception patio, the salón with the cuadra behind, leading to the second patio with the family rooms around it & a third patio with the servants’ quarters, stables, gardens and a well.
In 1687 a city wall designed by the Italian José de Fomento was completed by the Duke of Palata, to make the residents feel safe from pirates. As the city grew, it disappeared from where we now have the elliptic Avenida España.
There are just three restored remnants; la Portada de la Sierra, an entry gate towards the highlands at the top (9th block) of Pizarro, while a buttress & a ‘cortina’ (that ran between two buttresses) at opposite ends of Colón. Near the entrance, there are remains of the original distribution cistern (caja de aguas) which directed water in 5 directions.
The same pedestrian area has a fountain built by Gustave Eiffel,
transferred from the Plaza de Armas (see painting) for strategic reasons during the war of the Pacific (1879-1883). It shows four statues of people representing the four seasons.
A 9am start from the top end of Pizarro, down to Orbegoso & past the Plaza de Armas to the corner of Bolognesi, returning up Independencia to Junín, gives time for breaks before finishing at the University museum which is open until 2.45pm. Colonial houses are generally open 9.30am to 1pm & 4.30-6.15pm on weekdays & Saturdays until midday.
From the start, the height of buildings was limited by the possibility of seismic activity. The lack of good quality wood & stone & the costs of working them helped them acquire faith in adobe, which resists earthquakes, keeps heat in & out, with three thousand years of experience readily available.
Initially floors were mud & roofs were flat, until the occurrence of El Niño rains dictated change. Floors became rounded stones, flagstones or red brick & the roofs acquired slopes. The colonial architecture was then built on terrepleines around the patios. There were extensive mural designs. The Gothic art style was lost in the 1619 earthquake. Moorish & baroque styles remained in the 17th century. Baroque mestizo, an indigenous influence continued until 1760. From then there were rococo, French, Italian & English influences. A single solid colour is typical of the last century. Only the colours traditionally available should be used in the historic centre.
Windows were few & high for security. Originally of wood, they were painted dark blue or green. The copper content helped protect the wood from insects. Decorated iron nails, knockers (aldavas) & hinges & protectors helped provided security.
The stone window sills (peanas) & canopies (conopeas) helped keep them in position, especially after iron was imported from Biscay after the 1759 earthquake: first forged (forjado) & then cast (fundido) iron railings. The metal was often painted black, with gold coloured embellishments. The white seen today is a tradition for the last century.
All of Trujillo was destroyed by the earthquake on St. Valentine’s Day in 1619. What was not destroyed was demolished. A few mural details remain in the entrance halls (zaguánes) & below later foundations. A chancelry (cancela) gave carriages access to the first of 3 patios, a second patio gave access to family rooms, while the third patio housed servants and stables. A secondary corridor from there enabled horses to be ridden to and from the first reception patio.
As a result of natural disasters, financial problems, sales & inheritances, few houses retain all three patios. The Casa Orbegoso & Casa del Mayorazgo acquired L-shaped plans.
Churches (On google map)
The churches started with the form of a Latin cross. They started off as monasteries or convents. Later, if they had less than 15 monks, nuns or novices they were limited to being churches. Minor churches started with just one tower. The second tower & lateral naves appeared later.
The Cathedral (Orbegoso 4 & Independencia 5) was rebuilt between 1647-1666, two previous churches on the same site having been destroyed by earthquakes. It has baroque & rococo altars, the wooden principal altar having being restored after the 1970 earthquake. It has Quito & Cuzco style paintings & a museum alongside with outstanding paintings & religious clothing.
To the right of the Cathedral in the photo is the Cathedral Museum, & next door, the Archbishop’s Palace.
The Archbishop’s Palace & particularly the woodwork & Seville tiles, were beautifully restored for the visit of Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of state of the Vatican, & opened to the public subsequently in September 2007.
La Merced was one of the first two churches of Trujillo & was rebuilt in 1630. It was constructed by Alfonso de las Nieves. The main façade is baroque, with the founder of the order San Pedro Nolasco in the lateral façade too.
Its espadañas could not carry a full-sized bell, so the bells lie on the floor near the entrances.
The upper choir stalls have a mock, painted, wooden, rococo 18th century organ & the original altar (painted on the wall before there was wood or funds), is still on view in the nave nearest the lateral entrance.
The main altar is covered in gold leaf.
The four pechinas painted below the inner dome which collapsed in the 1970 earthquake have been beautifully restored.
La ex-Compania de Jesús (Pizarro 3 & Almagro 3), a work of Diego de la Puente between 1632-1633 was considered the bench mark for later buildings, including the cathedral. The Jesuits were expelled from the colonies around 1766 & never returned to Trujillo.
Simón Bolívar founded the first republican university there in 1824 & the National University of Trujillo still uses it for conferences & occasional exhibits.
The nocturnal picture shows from right to left, doric, ionic & compound Corinthian capitels on its columns.
San Francisco (Independencia 607 & Gamarra) has part (cátedra) of the pulpit from which San Francisco predicted (in 1613) that Trujillo would be destroyed, as it was, later in 1619. The pulpit, main altar & polychrome altars are of baroque style.
Santo Domingo (1638-1642 & 1669)(Pizarro 2 & Bolognesi 4).
Santa Clara (Junín 4 & Independencia 6) convent’s church has a ‘torna voz’, where you can talk, but not see the cloistered nuns. The public can see them only during Sunday mass when they sing in ‘seven voices’ at 8am.
Belén (1705), the church of the hospital order was considered audacious for its height in an area which is prone to earthquakes. It was the last to reopen, late in 1995, following the 1970 earthquake.
San Agustín (1658) Bolivar 508 & Orbegoso 6) has a main altar & pulpit, both covered in gold leaf & of baroque style.
Santa Ana (Orbegoso 2 & Zepita 4), Santa Rosa (1717) & San Lorenzo (Ayacucho 4 & Colón 7) were originally ‘iglesias menores’ for the indigenous people.
San Lorenzo’s roof collapsed as a result of the 1997/8 ‘El Niño’ rains, so our wedding was more economic, helped the restoration fund & was better illuminated for the wedding photos than normal.
Monasterio e Iglesia del Carmen (Bolívar & Colón) was finished in 1725, but only opened its picture gallery (pinacoteca) & occasionally the church (in photo) to the public in the 1990s. The monastery remains closed.
There are four churches near Chimú sites, away from the city centre.
San Salvador de Mansiche & its Popes’ Plaza were visited by the Pope John Paul II in 1984. The arch commemorating his visit was demolished when the avenue was widened. A huge cross at the Ovalo Papal on the Avenida América is a reminder of hundreds of thousands gathering to see him there. He visited Iquitos too, el ‘Papa charapa.’
Santiago de Huamán has a baroque mestizo façade. It is 3km west of Trujillo’s centre.
Santuario trujillano contará con iluminación arquitectónica (English)
El santuario Santiago de Huamán, del centro poblado de Huamán, en el distrito trujillano de Víctor Larco (La Libertad), contará con iluminación arquitectónica, informó hoy el Arzobispado Metropolitano de Trujillo. (AND192301)
Restaurarán lienzos del siglo XVII de templo trujillano
Dos valiosos lienzos del Santuario de Huamán, en Trujillo (La Libertad), pertenecientes al siglo XVII, serán restaurados en una iniciativa conjunta entre varias instituciones, informó hoy el Arzobispado Metropolitano de Trujillo. (AND201690) www.andina.com.pe/Espanol/Noticia.aspx?id=pypwrGIcvDE=
San Salvador de Mansiche, Trujillo’s second oldest church, was completely decorated initially:
La iglesia San Salvador de Mansiche, la segunda más antigua de Trujillo, habría lucido en su época inicial totalmente decorada con pinturas murales
Virgen del Perpetuo Socorro de Huanchaco has an extensive view over the bay. Pilgrimages each 5 years since it was built go to San José, Mansiche & around the 12 churches inside Trujillo’s Avenida España.
San José is at the north entrance to the Velarde palace of Chan Chan. The lighting was improved from Trujillo to Huanchaco & at its two churches in 2008.
Lighting was also improved at the Cathedral, San Francisco, Carmen, San Agustín
Nocturnal tours are being programmed for Trujillo. As a result of interest in the Historic Centre of Trujillo becoming World Heritage, it was realized the cemetery is historically important & is to be included in such tours.
Colonial houses (on google map)
Casa de la Emancipación (Pizarro 610 & Gamarra) has a copy of the coat of arms of Trujillo, authorized by Carlos I (Karl V) in 1537 to reward its loyalty to Spain. It is where the precursors of independence met for the forthcoming independence of Peru, became the first seat of Constituent Congress in 1823 & the government of Riva Agüero. One hall houses a model of colonial Trujillo; an exhibit on the Bishop of Trujillo Martinez de Compañon, replicas of his water colours; and another on Peru´s best known poet, Cesar Abraham Vallejo Mendoza, including his works translated into many languages. Another has a varied & interesting gallery maintained by BBVA.
Palacio Iturregui (Pizarro 688 & Junín) was built around 1840 by the man who declared the independence of Lambayeque before moving to Trujillo. The American George Squier declared the most splendid residence in South America. It still conserves its three patios & has been the home of the Club Central for over a century.
You can enter the first patio with marble floors, wrought & cast iron windows, & with a prior appointment, more of the house & its ceramic collection. It was the first residence to have a functional second floor.
Casa Urquiaga y Calonge, Pizarro 446 is on its original bases, a solar allocated in 1534.
Bolívar lived here in the early 1820s, leaving his writing desk & documents of the first government & the founding of what became today’s National University of Trujillo.
Its dining hall is beautifully lit by the skylight & chandelier.
The picture shows the second of three patios it still conserves &
the third still has a fig tree, indicating that its descendants are from one of the 13 settling families. It is occupied by Banco Central de la Reserva.
Next door on Pizarro, Guillermo Ganoza’ s house still has caballos de paso appear on Festival days.
La Municipalidad (Pizarro 402) was donated by Victor Larco in 1917, & lost its third storey during the 1970 earthquake. Trujillo’s independence from Spain was declared on the same site, in an earlier town hall on 29th December 1820. Iperu has its information office here.
Simón Bolívar called the Department La Libertad & its centenary was celebrated with the building of a monument built by the concourse winner the German Edmund Müller.
Casa del Mayorazgo de Facalá (Pizarro 314 & Bolognesi 5) was where Peru’s first flag was embroidered.
It has the best corner balcony in Trujillo, with beautiful interior & exterior woodcarvings.
The building was beautifully restored in 1991 by BancoWiese which became Scotia Bank.
La Casa Muñoz La Casa Muñoz y Cañete. Constructed on the plot assigned to the Márquez Francisco Pizarro. Until recently occupied by the Prefect of Trujillo. The typical 18th century coastal plan was adapted in the 19th century. As is traditional in republican architecture of vice royal origin it has all adobe walls, wood, cane & mud plaster (quincha) roofing.
Ex-Hotel Carranza (Orbegoso 311 & San Martín 5). It was previously known as Hotel del Arco, as there used to be an arch on the corner permitting access to the Main Plaza from the north. The poet César Vallejo (1892-1938) lived in a room there as a student & teacher. Rincon de Vallejo is an excellent typical restaurant here & nearby on España.
Casa Orbegoso, Orbegoso 553, was the residence of the only Peruvian President from the Region of La Libertad, General Luis Jaime de Orbegoso y Moncada. His body was transferred from the Miraflores cemetery to the crypt below his house on his 200th birthday in 1995. The corner balcony is eclectic & gives a good view over the patio to the San Agustín church, to which it used to belong.
The entrance hall (zaguán) has Moorish, baroque, baroque mestizo, rococo & neoclassic art. The wooden lattice of the chancellery (cancela) permitted secure communication with the first patio.
Cannons like those on the first & corner patios originally defended the Plaza Armada, later called the Plaza de Armas & today the Plaza Mayor.
The turned window bars & frames are painted green like the rest of the woodwork. Above the windows (cenofa) above the terrepleine there is rococo art. Orbegoso, in a painting in the main hall above the entrance, used to receive the mail via the corner balcony. Riders did not wait around during the struggle for independence, as it was uncertain who were royalists & republicans.
The house lost its rear patio & its plan became L-shaped, but the second patio still has an artesanal well & the remains of a mill. The passage between the patios enabled horses to be separated from the carriage in the first patio & dispatched to the stables off the second patio. Interbank restored it & occasionally has exhibitions in its gallery & cultural activities in its corner patio. Visits are free, but identity documents are required to enter the house. It was being restored for 8 months between 2007 & 2008.
Casa Airaldi, Orbegoso 586, has one of the three oldest facades in Trujillo, from 1620-1650. The mock archway is given away by the paint which has come away from its wooden lintel. It is up for sale, if you have a US$1million or two.
Casa Bracamonte (or Lizarzaburu, Independencia 441) has an artesanal well. Rarely open to the public. Occupied by the Beneficiencia Pública & IPSS.
Casa Garci Olguín, now occupied by Caja Norperu, was restored in 2000. There is permanent access to its ATM, so you can see into its only remaining patio, but unfortunately the ATM & publicity block the view of panels explaining the restoration process & its Moorish, baroque & rococo artwork, the late renaissance from the end of the 16th & first decades of the 17th centuries. A safe from Bilston was made by appointment to Queen Victoria.
Casa Loyers’ (Independencia 5) earliest history is from 1774. It belonged to English descendants, until Banco del Trabajo acquired & restored it in the 1990s. Neoclassic art has been restored in its only remaining patio.
Casa Ganoza Chopitea, de los Leones (Independencia 628) has Moorish, baroque & rococo influences on its façade. The wooden balcony was made from remnants of earlier examples. It also has a wrought iron window. It conserves a second patio with quincha (plastered cane) roof, but the third patio is a modern conference hall.
La Casa Martínez de Pinillos y Hoyle (Junín 454). Built in 1846 of adobe, wood & some brick structure, it has a marked neoclassic influence & symmetric republican façade with barroque influences. It houses the Chamber of Commerce.
Casa Risco (Junín 682 & Ayacucho 4, 1709-1723)
Houses the National University of Trujillo Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology & History.
Casa Aranda, (Bolívar 6). Built in the mid 18th Century, its portal is the only example of barroque mestizo in north Peru; like few others it has Moorish, late renaissance, barroque, rococo & modern neoclassic influences. Its owner had artists from the province bring in the indigenous influences.
Región La Libertad e INC unen esfuerzos para construir Casa de la Identidad Regional
El gobierno regional de La Libertad y el Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INC) suscribieron un convenio de cooperación para concretar la construcción de la Casa de la Identidad Regional, que reunirá la historia natural y cultural del departamento norteño.
Postergan hasta el próximo año remodelación de histórico Teatro Municipal de Trujillo Bolívar 8
El histórico Teatro Municipal de Trujillo (La Libertad) será remodelado a partir de enero del próximo año, estimó hoy el gerente municipal de Educación, Cultura, Juventud y Deportes, David Calderón de los Ríos. (AND196709)
Hallan restos coloniales en el centro de Trujillo
Hallan restos coloniales en el centro de Trujillo. Arqueólogos del INC hicieron excavaciones en plena Plaza de Armas y en calles adyacentes …
www.elcomercio.com.pe/edicionimpresa/Html/2008-01-24/hallan-restos-coloniales-centro-trujillo.html – 20k
Incluye el monumento Moeller de la Plaza Mayor, Palacio Iturregui, Iglesias de Huaman y Angasmarca y casas desaparecidas. Por Miguel Adolfo Vega Cardenas.
Thanks to Bob Loeb for the use of his photos
More from our photo album http://groups.msn.com/TrujilloPeru/colonialtrujillo.msnw?Page=1
Apoyar el Proyecto Especial de Recuperación del Patrimonio Monumental de Trujillo.
2 Inventario del patrimonio cultural.
3 PECHT Proyecto Especial Centro Histórico de Trujillo.
4 Programa mi padrino
University Mosaic is the longest work of art in Latin America, according to Trujillo’s Mayor.
Paseo Universitario de Trujillo. Foto MPT
Municipalidad de Trujillo entrega hoy remozado Paseo Universitario 25/8/2009
“Los turistas nacionales y extranjeros admirarán el Paseo Universitario, ya que desde hoy podrán apreciar mejor las escenas gráficas del gigantesco mural universitario, el más grande de América Latina”, sostuvo Acuña Peralta.
En el mural se observan aves, volcanes, danzantes, conquistadores, flores, huacas, virreyes, caciques, divinidades de la mitología prehispánica, helicópteros, ríos, danzantes y sobresale un Cristo levitando, entre otras imágenes sugerentes, como las ruinas de Macchu Picchu y Chan Chan.
Para este gigantesco mosaico se ha utilizado por lo menos treinta millones de fragmentos de mayólica de un centímetro cuadrado, con la colaboración de artistas de la Escuela de Bellas Artes “Macedonio de La Torre” de Trujillo. www.andina.com.pe/Espanol/Noticia.aspx?id=3Vj0v6dierE=
This webpage first opened 14/4/2008